Arabic Grammar – 150

Click to view table of contents

Intensive stem (Ⅲ)

Stem Ⅲ fȃʕala, yufȃʕilu فاعَلَ، يُفاعِلُ (called the L-stem, L for “lengthened vowel”) has an intensive or causative meaning. Verbs of this stem are always transitive, even if derived from intransitive verbs.

Intensive

Following are examples of intensive Stem Ⅲ verbs.

Stem Ⅰ Stem Ⅲ
saʔala سَأَلَ sȃʔala ساءَلَ
he asked (tr.) he asked for a long time, he interrogated (tr.)
dafaʕa دَفَعَ dȃfaʕa دافَعَ
he pushed, repelled (tr.) he defended against [obj.] (tr.)
ǵahida جَهِدَ ǵȃhada جاهَدَ
he was/became exhausted, he struggled (intr.) he struggled against [obj.] (tr.)

 

The intensity of duration or frequency expressed by Stem Ⅲ gave rise to a secondary meaning of mutuality, whereby both the subject and object of the verb are thought to be engaged in the action.

Stem Ⅰ Stem Ⅲ
qatala قَتَلَ qȃtala قاتَلَ
he killed (tr.) he fought with (tr.)
araʕa صَرَعَ ȃraʕa صارَعَ
he threw to the ground (tr.) he wrestled with (tr.)
ǵalada جَلَدَ ǵȃlada جالَدَ
he hit (tr.) he fought with (tr.)
qabala قَبَلَ qȃbala قابَلَ
he fronted (tr.) he met with (tr.)

 

Causative

Causative Stem Ⅲ verbs are denominal.

Noun Stem Ⅲ
iʕfuṋ ضِعْفٌ ȃʕafa ضاعَفَ
an equal additional amount he doubled, he multiplied (tr.)
ʕuqȗba·tuṋ عُقُوْبةٌ ʕȃqaba عاقَبَ
a punishment he punished (tr.)
wafquṋ وَفْقٌ wȃfaqa وافَقَ
same [thing] he agreed with (tr.)

The last example has a middle-voice meaning because, like we said, causative verbs are frequently middle-voice.

PreviousNext

Advertisements

اترك رد

إملأ الحقول أدناه بالمعلومات المناسبة أو إضغط على إحدى الأيقونات لتسجيل الدخول:

شعار وردبرس.كوم

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب WordPress.com. تسجيل خروج   /  تغيير )

Google+ photo

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب Google+. تسجيل خروج   /  تغيير )

صورة تويتر

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب Twitter. تسجيل خروج   /  تغيير )

Facebook photo

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب Facebook. تسجيل خروج   /  تغيير )

w

Connecting to %s