Arabic Grammar – 38

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Like Aramaic and most other Semitic languages, Arabic is written from right to left.

In most languages putting letters next to each other simply creates a word. In Arabic, however, putting letters as they are in a row does not create a word.

بَ حْ ر

This is not a word. It is just a sequence of three separate sounds ba ħ r

The letters of each Arabic word must be joined together, so the previous word will look like:


Now this is a word. It is pronounced baħr– and it means “sea”

So in order to write and read Arabic you will have, in addition to knowing the letters, to know how each letter is joined when it is at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.

More examples:

يَ + وْ + م = ﻳَوْم

yawm “day”

Notice here that the letter w و was joined only from one side. Some letters are joined only from one side.

وَ + لَ + د = وَﻟَد

walad “child, boy”

بِ + نْ + ت = ﺑِﻨْت

bint “girl, daughter”

رَ + جُ + ل = رَﺟُل

raǵul “man”

Joined figures of letters Letter
End Middle Beginning
See in §II.10.B أ
ــب ــبــ بــ ب
ــتــ تــ ت
ــة / ة
ــث ــثــ ثــ ث
ــج ــجــ جــ ج
ــح ــحــ حــ ح
ــخ ــخــ خــ خ
ــد ــد د د
ــذ ــذ ذ ذ
ــر ــر ر ر
ــز ــز ز ز
ــس ــســ ســ س
ــش ــشــ شــ ش
ــص ــصــ صــ ص
ــض ــضــ ضــ ض
ــط ــطــ طــ ط
ــظ ــظــ ظــ ظ
ــع ــعــ عــ ع
ــغ ــغــ غــ غ
ــف ــفــ فــ ف
ــق ــقــ قــ ق
ــك ــكــ كــ ك
ــل ــلــ لــ ل
ــم ــمــ مــ م
ــن ــنــ نــ ن
ـه ــهــ هــ هـ
ــو ــو و و
ــي ــيــ يــ ي


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